In 1971, Dr. Mitsugu Fujimori was recruited as the first Chairman of the Department of Anesthesiology at Osaka City University (currently known as Osaka Metropolitan University). Since its inception, the department has fostered a heritage of excellence in clinical care and research in the fields of anesthesiology, critical care, emergency care and pain medicine. Currently, our department mainly specializes in providing clinical anesthesia and pain management throughout Osaka Metropolitan University Hospital as well as pursuing a variety of basic and clinical research projects in anesthesiology. As the number of surgical procedures requiring anesthesia is increasing in our country with the aging of the population, it is very meaningful to develop anesthesia that is safer and less invasive to the human body. Research in the pain management field is also attractive because many patients still suffer from intractable chronic or cancer pain. In recent years, Japan has seen a problematic decrease in the number of newly written scientific papers. Many members in our department are active in basic or clinical research. Every year we publish our research in high-impact scientific journals. We strive to educate the next generation of anesthesiologists to provide high-quality perioperative care and pain management.